The Original Message of Islâm

 

By Farid Gabteni

 

After examining knowledge about science and faith, and before tackling the issue of the original Message of Islâm, I would like to point out that the scientific validity of my work is recognized and undisputed by specialists. However, some of these specialists – Muslim traditionalists – have expressed reservations with regard to the conclusions of my research, i.e. the desacralisation of ideological traditionalism and the re-establishment, pure and simple, of original Islâm (610-632). My work is intended for a Muslim audience, but also, and perhaps more, for non-Muslims, in order to differentiate between truth and falsehood, between original Islâm and warped, instrumentalised islam.
I learned the Qurân, the ḥadîth, the sunnah/sîrah, theology and jurisprudence via the teaching and the vision of great doctors (Σulamâ), references in the field of traditionalism. Therefore, I myself became a traditionalist (moderate؟) for some time. However, when I specialized and studied among others historiography, I then reopened the Qurân with a multidisciplinary scientific approach; what was not my surprise to discover that the original Message of Islâm stated in the Corpus of the Qurân makes serious objection to many assertions included in the multiple writings of tradition, while the latter constitute the basis of the traditionalist ideology.
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Etymologically, in the Arabic language, Islâm (الإسلام) means Pacification: the action of pacifying, establishing, re-establishing and maintaining peace; surrendering to God through peace. Islâm is the activation of peace (al-silm, al-salâm, السّلم السّلام): he who surrenders to God is pacified (yuslim, يسلم), he banishes troubles from his mind, the rebellious streaks within him and around him; he is pacified, Muslim (muslim, مسلم), and pacifist (mussâlim, مسالم): he yearns for peace, safety and tranquillity; he is not in favour or involved in troubles and rebellion; as a result, he acquires a peaceful (salîm, سليم), healthy and saintly heart, in peace with God and His Creation.
The historical context of the advent of Islâm shares some commonalities with our era. As it is the case today, at the beginning of the seventh century, the known world was dominated by antagonistic powers, the Persian and Byzantine empires. There were of course other civilisations such as the great nations of India and China, not forgetting the pre-Columbian civilisations, some other wealthy countries, and some other poor ones. There were also some unsophisticated populations and tribes, which, for centuries, have perpetuated the same lifestyle in the same way that some groups still exist today on the margins of civilisation…
The philosophical concerns and religious beliefs of the tribes of Arabia were extremely archaic compared to existing religions whether they be monotheist: Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism, which were widespread across the known world to as far as the most remote regions of the Arabian desert; or were considered as polytheist: Taoism, Shintoism, Hinduism, Buddhism, etc.
The polytheism and idolatry that reigned amongst the Arabian tribes were such that representations of gods were themselves considered as truly divine and personified as such. And even if their followers believed in a God of gods, this one was not guaranteed his superiority; he was in competition with the minor divinities that very often were more worshipped than him. The degree of evolution of the Arabs therefore, compared to that of the major civilisations of the time, was very rudimentary.
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The historical, religious and socio-cultural context in which Muhammad[1], seal of Prophets, lived, is comparable to that of Abraham, father of Muslims. Abraham lived at a time when human sacrifice was commonplace, particularly of children. In the Arabia of the early seventh century, poverty drove some to kill their own children. Others buried their daughters alive through shame or through fear of dishonour, especially if they were firstborn. A first or last-born male was also sometimes sacrificed following a promise made before to an idol. And so Islâm rose from the desert where the obscurantism of ignorantism[2] dominated.
In the beginning, one man, Muhammad, who loathed the idols. He was nicknamed al-amîne: “the insurer, the trustworthy.” God gave Muhammad the Revelation, through the intermediary of an angel, Gabriel (Jibrîl). Muhammad found himself in a cave called Ḥirâ’[3], in which, for five years he took refuge during the month of Ramaḍân in order to reflect on the creation of the skies and the earth. For the remainder of the year, he managed his wife’s businesses and accompanied caravans across the desert.
God always chooses humble men, but not ordinary men. He shows them His light i.e. His science, and He makes them guides, role models and examples, for those who know how to reflect and how to reason. In choosing Muhammad, God selected a man who lived quite normally and simply, and He revealed to him, as He did to all the Prophets, that He Is his God, The God of all men, of all creation. He Is The without-beginning-or-end, He Is, He Was, He always will Be; He Is a hidden Treasure, He Creates and makes Himself Known. In the Qurân, it is said: And in this way We have Revealed to you a spirit of Our Order, you did not understand what is the writing (book) nor the assurance (faith, belief), but We have Formed it a light, We Guide with it whoever We Will of Our Servants (…) 52[4]; And you have not related any writing (book), before it [the Qurân], and did not trace it with your right (…) 48[5]
God gave him the light, the science contained in the Qurân, the Distinguishing Book (al-furqân): the Book of God, so that he may pass it on to mankind. Muhammad was wealthy thanks to his wife, held in high esteem by his parents and friends, and regarded by his co-citizens. He became the depository for truth and he would be tested by evil and good, as were all the Envoys and Prophets of God before him, as are righteous men, as are all men. And assuredly the last one [the hereafter] is better for you, than the first [in this world] 4 And certainly, from afar, Your Master will Give you, and you will be pleased 5 Did He not Find you orphaned (deprived), and He Gave [you] refuge? 6 And He Found you astray, and He Guided you 7 And He Found you in need, and He Enriched you 8 So as for the orphan (deprived), do not oppress 9 And as for the seeker, do not rebuff 10 And by the Grace of Your Master, proclaim 11[6]
Muhammad received a new Revealed Book, the Qurân. This Book gives credibility, restores and complements the previous revelations; and offers continuity of the divine Message transmitted by each Prophet to his people, at his time. In this, Muhammad is the seal of Prophets, with him the Creance, the Religion, is complete, and monotheism is established definitively. Muhammad was not the father of any of your men, but the Envoy of God, and the seal of the annunciators (prophets); and God was, of all things, Savant 40[7]; (…) This day I have Completed on you your creance (religion) and I have Perfected on you My Grace, and I have Approved for you the Pacification (Islâm), creditor (religiosity) (…) 3[8]; Certainly the creance (religion) For God is Pacification (Islâm) (…) 19[9]
Since then, polytheism, – which remained largely dominant since the earliest times despite the emergence of monotheistic religions – has begun to decline, especially today when, with the unprecedented rise of sciences, the central theme, even and mainly amongst scientists, is God The Unique: IN THE NAME OF GOD THE ORIGIN THE ARRANGING. Say: ‘He Is God Unique 1 God The Absolute 2 He did not beget and nor was He begotten 3 And He had no comparable unto Him, anyone’ 4[10]
(…) This day I have Completed on you your creance (religion) and I have Perfected on you My Grace, and I have Approved for you the Pacification (Islâm), creditor (religiosity) (…) 3[11]. This verse is the last to have been revealed, the final point of the Revelation. Islâm, the first and last religion to be revealed, was complete and certified as such from that day. Everything added post this revelation has been subjected to many circumstances of the history of Muslims and cannot be considered as being part of the canon of Islâm. To state otherwise is to say that the Religion was not completed at the revelation of this verse, contrary to what it claims.
Thus, since Âdam, the first human, and until Muhammad, the seal of Prophets, while passing through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, the divine Message has always been the same, conveyed in different forms and finalised with Islâm.
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With the Qurân, Muhammad received the first and last religion, with always the same message: God has given you reason, study the past and the present, learn through science and knowledge, observe the sky, the celestial bodies, the earth, the sea, life, death, all things great and small. This way, you will know, you will know Him, you will be able to bear witness that there is no god but God, and you will know how and why to live. You will not worship nor you will serve “gods” other than God, The Unique, The True, and thus you will work with fairness and kindness, you will do no evil, and you will not defile the Creation. You will act this way because you will know that He Is God and that He Is The One who Creates and Judges.
God Is The Light of the skies and the earth. The example of His Light is like a hearth; in which is a lamp, the lamp is in a lantern, the lantern is as an atomistic star fuelled from a Blessed tree, olive, neither eastern (splendid) nor western (dull), his oil feints to shine [even] if no fire has touched it: light upon light. God Guides to His Light whomever He Wills, and God Applies examples for the people; and God, of all things, Is Savant 35[12]; Certainly We have Sent down upon you the writing (book), for mankind, in truth; so he who guided himself, did so for his soul, and he who strayed, will certainly loose his way; and you are not over them a trustee 41[13]
So turn your face towards the creance (religion), converted, Way of God, the way in which He has Made men, no change for the Creation of God; that is the straight creance (religion), but most people do not know 30[14]. Religion of the good and beautiful work, of the middle ground, of moderation, Islâm is the religion of science and the knowledge of God through His creation. One of the elements, and far from an insignificant one, which distinguishes the Qurân from earlier revelations is its insistence on the notions of science and knowledge. The first word of the Revelation to Muhammad was ‘Iqra’! (Read!), Read By The Name of Your Master, The One Who Created 1 Created the human from an adherence 2 Read, and Your Master Is The Most-Abundant 3 The One Who made Known by the calame 4 Made Known to the human what he knew not 5[15]
As to the first man designated as human, it is Âdam, and the first time he is mentioned in the Qurân, God says: And He made Known to Âdam the names, all of them (…) 31[16]. It is therefore clear that, in the Qurân, the very beginnings of human being are linked to knowledge. The first thing that Âdam received from God is the knowledge of all the names, and the first order from God to Muhammad was Read!. God’s Message to man, from the very beginning to Muhammad and beyond to the end of times, is: Read, learn, understand the creation of God, in order to know God and act accordingly; that is to say, act correctly and with kindness, for you will be judged. And the Day of the Resurrection: (…) Those to whom knowledge was Reported have said: ‘This day, certainly, degradation and defilement are upon the denigrators’ 27[17]; And those to whom knowledge and assurance (faith, belief) were Reported have said: ‘Assuredly you have already remained in the Writing (Book) of God towards the Day of the Resurrection, then this is the Day of the Resurrection; but you did not know’ 56[18]. This shows us to what extent knowledge constitutes God’s first commandment in Islâm.
Focusing one’s attention and reflection on what one says, what one hears and what one sees, is to become aware of things, of oneself, and of others. Correctly deciphering beyond what one says, what one hears and what one sees, is to become aware of all of the things, of oneself, and of others in their entirety. Beyond these two groups, one finds The True, The Inexpressible Reality.
In the Qurân, there are a huge number of verses that promote reflection and reasoning, and which refer to the scholars: (…) so narrate the narration, perhaps they will reflect! 176[19]; (…) and such examples, We Apply them to the people; perhaps they will reflect! 21[20]; (…) Thus do We Explain the signs in detail for a community [of those] who reflect 24[21]; (…) Thus God Makes explicit to you the signs (verses); perhaps you will reflect! 219[22]; Those who remember God, standing and sitting and on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the skies and the earth: ‘Our Master! You did not create this falsely; Glory to You! So Protect us from the torment of fire’ 191[23]
It Is He Who Formed the sun blaze, and the moon a light and He Measured it downward; so that you may know the number of years and the calculation; God Created this only in truth; We Detail the signs for a community [of those] who know 5[24]; And of His Signs: the creation of the skies and the earth, and the diversity of your languages and of your colours; certainly in this are signs for the [worlds] savants 22[25]; And such examples, We Apply to the people, but only the savants understand them 43[26]; (…) certainly those who fear God are the savants among His Servants; certainly God Is Considerable, Forgiving 28[27]; Rather, it is of the explicit signs in the breasts of those to whom knowledge was Reported; and none deny Our Signs except the obscurantists (unjusts) 49[28]; (…) God Elevates those of you who have assured (believed) and those to whom knowledge was Reported, degrees; and God Is Informed of what you do 11[29]
To deny the Qurân its scientific aspect is to ignore or forget that the Islamic scholars and civilisation are the fruit of a Quranic culture which encourages reflection and scientific research. The influence and the contribution of the Qurân to the Muslim scholars are undeniable and historically proven.
Muslim scholars have all been believers, trained through study of the Qurân. Almost all of them became theologians, before specializing in various scientific disciplines. They enriched Science with their knowledge and all thereof acquired throughout the history of humanity. Their work is nowadays considered as the precursor of modern science. Time and again, these scholars have testified that in-depth study of the Qurân was the source of their scientific vocation.
And those to whom knowledge and assurance (faith, belief) were Reported have said (…) 56[30]. In this verse, the word “knowledge” precedes the word “faith,” both should be considered simultaneously, one with the other. The combination of knowledge and faith is peace, serenity, a peaceful, healthy and saintly heart. History has shown us that without knowledge or judgement, all belief is dependent on circumstance and passion, which lead to better and/or to worse.
All Muslim scholars were – without exception – Quranists, as was the Prophet himself; and the deviationist extremists were all traditionalists, and those of today are no less such; that says it all. Muslims of progress and of Science provided humanity with the basis of modern knowledge. Islâm is the only world religion to have given birth to a civilisation of science. Backward-thinkers, fanatics and criminals have always, in all times and all societies, been something from which humanity has needed to heal itself.
Furthermore, to be a Muslim, you must bear witness that there is no god but God. And to be a true witness, to be able to attest to truth and reality, you must possess knowledge, an understanding of the facts and things. Once this knowledge is acquired, we attain then faith by reason and heart, we become humble in the peace and love of God, we know from where we have come and where we are going, we act with benevolence and beneficence; we distinguish good from evil, truth from falsehood. The Muslim who knows, is a being of Peace, tolerant, good, benevolent and beneficent; he believes in the Unique God without associate, in the God of Israel, of Christ, of Muhammad, in the God of all men without distinction, in the God of the skies, the earth and what is between them, in the God of those who live in the skies and on earth. And certainly if the Creance, the Religion, with God is Islâm, He Brings up to whom He Wants and He Forgives to whom He Wants. So not one excluded, all His creatures enter His Mercy. And I say that this is not a point of detail.
And so that those to whom knowledge was Reported may know, that certainly it is the True from Your Master, and so assure (believe) in it, then their hearts humble for it; and God Is Assuredly Guiding those who have assured (believed) to a straight route 54[31]
The Qurân is not an arcane book, reserved solely for the initiated; it is expressly exoteric in that it can and must be disclosed and taught publicly. However, due to its divine nature, the text features and conveys several juxtaposing and complementary levels of reading; no interpretation – literal or anagogical – can break free. That being said, its signified meaning can be inferred with an optimal probability of discourse analysis, be it specific or generic. The Qurân is therefore accessible to all people who are bestowed with reason and common sense; it is incomprehensible to the deaf who do not want to hear, and the blind who do not want to see.
I demonstrate throughout my book, through dozens of examples, that the Qurân insists on and encourages reflection, reasoning, and the search for knowledge; therefore, the understanding of God. The Qurân is not law in itself, but Revelation; it is Religion in that it establishes a connection between man and the Divine Order, a Superior Reality, which takes the form of Knowledge, Faith, Kindness, Charity, the Order of good, Abstinence from evil, Pacification and Peace; that is the original Message of Islâm.
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Unlike the Bible and the majority of sacred books that chronologically relate the history of creation, the world, man, the Prophets and Messengers, the Qurân, apart from Joseph and the odd exception, does not report events of a single tenant in any specific chapter, instead, they are fragmented and presented in a nonlinear way throughout the whole of the corpus. It is not necessarily aimed at relating historical facts themselves, but more about stimulating the scientific research, analysis and reflection, which raises the soul to Islâm[32]. Contrary to what some believe and preach, the Qurân does not portray itself as a history book, nor as a civil and penal code, in the literal sense of the words. Deep understanding of the Qurân is achieved only by a rigorous pluridisciplinary analysis, through binoculars, magnifying glass and microscope. It is the Revelation of God, His Word addressed to man’s reason and reasoning.
And assuredly We have already made Varying for the people, in this Qurân, of every kind of example; but most people stubbornly denigrated 89[33]; If We had Sent down this Qurân on a mountain, you would have assuredly seen it reverential, and fissured by fear of God; and such examples, We Apply them to the people; perhaps they will reflect! 21[34]
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Of all the Attributes that God bestows upon Himself in the Qurân, Master of the Worlds, so often repeated (forty-two times in this form), highlights the universal nature of Islâm, the religion to which all men are invited. God is not the Master of a single sky or a single earth; He is the Master of the Worlds: of the skies, earth and all that lies between them. If this statement partially escaped the comprehension of the first Muslims, it takes on a whole new significance when viewed under the light of modern knowledge. Pharaoh said: ‘And what is The Master of the worlds?’ 23 He [Moses] said: ‘The Master of the skies, and the earth, and what is between them; if you were certain!’ 24[35]; Certainly Your God Is Assuredly One 4 Master of the skies, and the earth, and what is between them; and Master of easts (splendours) 5[36]
In the middle of billions of galaxies and solar systems, though scientists ask the eternal question of is there other life in the Universe, the Qurân states: And for God prostrate themselves what is in the skies and what is on earth of animals (animate), and the angels (possessors) and they are not arrogant 49 They have fear of Their Master above them, and they do what they are Commanded 50[37]
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In the desert, more than fourteen hundred years ago, God Revealed to Muhammad that this Book, the Qurân, this reminder that He is addressing to man, will not be altered, because it is God Himself who Preserves it. And indeed, the Qurân is to this day, considered by specialists as the sacred book that most conforms to the original. Certainly We, We Sent down the rememoration, and certainly We Are assuredly Preserving it 9[38]. Having done so, it is still necessary to reach the heart of its message: Certainly it is assuredly an abundant Qurân 77 In a protected writing (book) 78 None touch it except the purified 79 A Descent from the Master of the worlds 80[39]; But it is a prestigious Qurân 21 In a Preserved tablet 22[40]
At the time of the Prophet, each civilisation had its own values, and the notions of good and evil were different from one population to the next. Since the second half of the twentieth century, humanity has reached a high level of civilisation and knowledge; sciences and technologies have experienced an unprecedented rate of development. However, what of the fallibility of man? Although the decor has changed, the mentality has generally stayed the same. Corruption and evil have still predominated and had familiar guises: injustice, mass manipulation, obscurantism, misery, wars, massacres, crises, all forms of trafficking, environmental degradation, extinction of species, pollution, climate change, etc. Corruption has appeared on land and ocean because of what the hands of people have acquired, so that He makes them Taste a part of what they have done; perhaps they will come back! 41[41]
Nowadays, Islâm and Muslims have become the obsession of the world. They are most often mentioned in terms of war, terrorism, immigrants or emigrants. In Africa, Asia, South America and elsewhere in the world, forests are being devastated, lakes and rivers have dried up, lands and villages are engulfed, entire populations are displaced, millions of people live below the poverty line, there are hundreds of thousands of victims of famine, murder, kidnapping and human organ trafficking, millions of women are beaten and assaulted, hundreds of thousands of children are enslaved, and so on. There is no mention of that except beyond a certain threshold of horror‚ or then, for the Football World Cup.
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Another paradox, while Islâm is radiating and extending to the scientific spheres, the current Muslim world, far from being the model to follow, is in fact adrift. These two observations are sufficient to demonstrate that Islâm distinguishes itself by its divine originality, from Muslims who are fallible by nature. And it is said in the Qurân: God Wants to Make Explicit to you and Guide you, the ways of those before you, and to Review you; and God is Savant, Judging 26 And God Wants [only] to Review you, and those who follow their desires want you to incline, a great inclination 27 God Wants [only] to Lighten for you, and the human was Created weak 28[42]
Islâm is on the rise, numerically at least, with nearly two billion faithful on the planet and the number of those embracing Islâm continues to grow. In time, Islâm will become the leading religion on earth. The advance of Islâm, which contrasts with the degenerative actions of some Muslims, can be explained by the universal nature of its original message, a message that cannot contain the vicissitudes that Muslims have faced for many centuries. It Is He Who Sent His Envoy by the guidance and the creance (religion) of truth, so that He Manifests it above all creance (religion); and [even] if those who associate dislike it 9[43]
The simultaneous emergence of the charlatan[44] and charlatanism is from now on effective worldwide; they characteristically present themselves under the false pretences of virtue and piety. Many believe in these facades, until the light of knowledge is irrevocably manifest and confuses these dark and evil forces. Under the cover of an islam that has been distorted by ignorantists, some fanatics, corruptors of the faith, who are at ease with ignominy, commit the worst crimes against God and humanity. By distorting Islâm and all the universal, moral values, they are cultivating discord, hatred of others, violence and sectarianism. Although it is undeniable that these demonic criminals target and threaten civilisation as a whole, Muslims are the first victims of their theories and their nightmarish practices.
Criminals do not have a religion; they take joy in murder, destruction and corruption on earth. Islâm condemns the demonic and murderous charlatans – woe betide them in this world and the next. Islâm is innocent of the crimes, cruelties and massacres perpetrated falsely in its name by deviationist and criminal heretics. Those are rather the henchmen of evil, perverts and corrupters on earth. God does not love aggression or the aggressors, and certainly not the corrupters on earth, the bloodthirsty and the criminal butchers.
The heart of the problem concerning terrorism perpetrated in the name of Islâm lies in an obscurantist, fanatical and violent ideology, which preaches hatred and murder. This type of heretical ideology runs contrary to and undermines original Islâm, leading the ignorant and weak-spirited astray and turning them into criminal demons. We must inform, teach and raise awareness amongst Muslims of original Islâm, a fount of science, progress, tolerance, peace and civilisation.
Faith is intimately linked to kindness and benevolence. Disarray is inwardly connected to brutality and violence. In his time, the Prophet never took on a war of aggression; all of those he was forced to take on were either defensive, or (more rarely) preventative[45]. Those after him, who have acted differently on their own, bear sole responsibility before God and History. Original Islâm calls for humanism and universalism, unlike ideological traditionalism which leads to communitarianism and identity withdrawal. The first is the Teaching of God, Master of the worlds; the second is the infatuation of the doctrinarian and narrow-minded sectarians.
Some, misguided, spend their time, tearing each other apart, often most sincerely. Both sides claim “God Is The Greatest!” and yet, in one camp like the other, they claim to defend God’s righteous cause. They are in a restricted mental state where ignorantism perpetuates obscurantism, superstition and violence. Many have become hostages or puppets of a bygone dogmatism and era. What else to say: Lâ ḥawla wa lâ quwwata illâ billâh – there is no environment nor power except in God. Say: ‘O familiars of the writing (book)! Exceed not in your creance (religion), beyond the truth, and follow not the inclinations of a community [of those] who went astray before, and who misled many, and went astray from the right path’ 77[46]
As an example, ‘ΣÂshûrâ’ is a celebration for some, during which one rejoices; it is a period of mourning for others, during which people flagellate themselves. It should be neither a festivity nor a mortification by flagellation. Muslim historians, without exception, tell that the last and beloved grandson of the Prophet, Al-Ḥussayn, was killed and beheaded by so-called Muslims on the day of ‘Σâshûrâ’ (01/10/61 H/10-10-680 G). Who can thus claim Muhammad’s community and rejoice on that day? How can one also allow mortification by flagellation while Islâm entirely rejects this process? This day should be a time of contemplation and thought about our history – both of yesterday and today – to make us optimize ourselves tomorrow.
In addition, with regard to the Prophets’ birthdays, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad did not celebrate their dates of birth; nor did the Jews, the first Christians and the first Muslims celebrate the anniversary of the birth of their Prophets. Furthermore, in the history of religions, we find no trace of a Prophet who would have initiated their disciples into such celebrations. That being said, it is worth pointing out that such rememorations cannot be regarded as illicit as long as they are not made sacred.
The Prophet appointed and sent officers and instructors to teach Monotheism through Islâm (Pacification). Nevertheless, he instituted neither clergy nor government, and he designated no one – precisely and clearly – to exercise political and/or religious power after him. Therefore, original Islâm did not legitimize the inauguration of an establishment – in any manner or nature whatsoever – yet ideological traditionalism did, and continues to do so. Islâm conveys the philosophy of life; traditionalism conveys a systemic ideology.
Islâm cannot be represented by a clergy, neither by religious dignitaries nor even less by a state institution. As for the specialists in Islamic religion, they can profit only from one prerogative: deliver opinions.
After the death of the Prophet Muhammad (632), several events and historical circumstances, which it would be difficult to enumerate here, led different people to legislate in every domain, some interpreting the Qurân and the life of the Prophet in accordance with what they believed to be just from their own perspective, others in relation to their own interests. This resulted in sharîΣah, legislation, theology and jurisprudence among Muslims. Now, more than ever, we have a duty to study and examine in detail and in depth, objectively, historically and scientifically, the Islâm of the Prophet’s lifetime and what became of it after his death, considering the origins of theology and jurisprudence in the Muslim community, in order to get back to the true and original Message of Islâm.
God Taught the human the names, all of them (chap. 2, v. 31); to analyze, reflect, discern and legislate accordingly. The only sharîΣah (Law, Legislation) of God – unchanging and inviolable – happens to be the laws of physics, unaltered and unalterable since the creation of the universe. Any other law is circumstantial of time, place, cause and purpose. Ignoramuses and fanatics are as illustrated in the Qurân, verse 179, chapter 7: “(…) they have hearts, with which they do not understand, and they have eyes, with which they do not see, and they have ears, with which they do not hear. Those are like herds, rather, they are more astray. Those are the heedless.”
For the Muslim who knows, only the Qurân is the Revelation of God, thus Sacred; the rest is a composition of men, thus fallible. The Qurân clearly affirms freedom of conscience and expression; I would even say freedom itself. Thus, when God Announced to the angels that He would form a successor (to what preceded) in the earth, then they retorted: “Will You form in it one who corrupts in it and spreads bloods? (…).” God! Far from blaming them from such thoughts, Replies to them and Argues such a decision: “(…) Certainly I Know what you do not know”[47]. Moreover, in the Qurân, it is even allowed for the devil to disobey God, to justify his disobedience and wrongdoing (at his peril). For anyone who thinks, everything has been said, about freedom, in what I have just outlined. All of the Qurân illustrates – through a number of examples – freedom of conscience and expression.
The ideal of freedom is not the characteristic of homo occidentalis but that of human nature; the word “freedom” was proclaimed, throughout human history, by all the oppressed, from all nations, all over the Earth. The universality of this noble word was enshrined by the struggle of colonized, stripped and enslaved peoples; freedom is inherent in the evolution and the achievement of humans.
The last countries to have abolished slavery were the so-called “Muslim” countries, in total contradiction with the precepts of the Qurân and the Prophet’s conduct, encouraging the emancipation of slaves. Similarly, by removing some Quranic verses from their context – circumstantial of time, place, cause and purpose – traditionalists preach that women should spend their lives under the guardianship of men. By thoughtlessly accepting this, too many Muslims still lag behind when it comes to the emancipation of women. This, once again, is in total contradiction with the Heart of the Qurân and the original Message of Islâm.
All human beings, men and women, are born and remain absolutely free and equal in dignity and rights before God, until the final judgement; an analytical reading of the Qurân as a whole leaves no doubt on this subject. Deviationist Muslim traditionalists, who define the words by twisting their meaning and taking them out of the Quranic context, are no better than their Jewish and Christian counterparts, who preach that woman was the first to commit the original sin, but they take this literally from their Bibles[48].
To prove that woman is not man’s equal and should be subject to man’s authority, deviationist traditionalists put forward various arguments, including that God did not anoint any female Prophets. Do you imagine female Prophets preaching to backward tribes who lacked faith and law, were warlike and murderous, practised child sacrifice and misogynistic in the extreme, who regarded and valued women as no more than useful tools? And knowing what many of them still suffer in our time, how might we describe the horrific living conditions women experienced in decades, centuries and millennia past?
* * *
Heretics have truncated Islâm, the religion of oneness, knowledge, freedom of conscience, free will, tolerance, pacification and Peace, to produce obscurantist, backward, hateful and violent ideologies. Yet, even to speak to a tyrant like Pharaoh, God Ordered Moses and his brother: “Then speak to him a gentle word, so that perhaps he may be reminded or fear!”[49]. This verse, like many other similar verses, constitutes, for the Muslim, a behavioral example to follow. Similarly, if today the entrance of mosques is generally forbidden to non-Muslims, the Prophet Muhammad, for his part, received Jews and Christians, among others, in the mosque.
The Qurân mentions racism as the first great sin committed against divine law and that it originated from the devil; replying to God about mankind, “he said, ‘I am better than him. You Created me from fire and Created him from clay’”[50]. Consequently, whoever believes himself superior to another perpetuates this sin of diabolic origin; and God Knows that racists are numerous, everywhere in the world.
A presentation begins with an introduction, followed by a development and ends with a conclusion. This is the case of the Qurân; it starts with “The Opener” (Al-Fâtiḥah), chapter 1; it develops from “The Cow” (Al-Baqarah), chapter 2, until the end of the book; it concludes with chapters dating mainly from the beginning of Revelation. This is to point out the importance that should be given to the origin.
Unlike what was instituted after the Prophet, it is not his emigration to Medina (the Hijra, 622)[51] which marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. The latter can be inferred from the Qurân (chapter 97), and it begins with the Quranic Revelation, in 610 (chapter 96). Original Islâm covers the whole of Revelation (from 610 to 632), while ideological traditionalism likes to opt for and anchor itself in the Hijri calendar. All Muslim historians – traditionalists included – report that the Hijri calendar was adopted after the Prophet. The Qurân, for its part, gives precedence to the date of Revelation: “(…) better than a thousand months”[52]. Common sense dictates that a calendar start from an initial event; it is obvious that Islâm did not begin with the Hijra, but with the Quranic Revelation.
Adoption, after the Prophet, of the Hijri calendar had sententious political, theological and jurisprudential impacts. Insinuately, it has allowed and still allows traditionalists to falsely substantiate their ideologies, exegetically focusing on the Medina period instead of, and at the expense of the Mecca period. The Qurân states: “(…) Then do you assure (believe) by a part of the writing (book), and denigrate by a part? (…)”[53]
After the death of the Prophet in 632 and the great subversion of 656-680[54], for centuries, the primary causes of the decline and division of the Muslim community into factions have originated from purely political conflicts and from the considerable credit that these factions gave to the collections of traditions relating to the ancients and the words, actions and deeds of the Prophet (the salaf[55], ḥadîth[56] and sunnah[57]). Each current indeed understands the Qurân and Islâm according to what they draw from these collections, which leads to often-contradictory theological, jurisprudential, in fact socio-political interpretations. Historians from all disciplines, enunciators[58] included, still to this day debate the historical validity of these traditions. Despite this, for many Muslims, they take precedence over the Qurân, becoming the source of what divides them.
Scientific analysis of the totality of these collections of traditions, which date back from one hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty-five years after the death of the Prophet, teaches us that they offer no concrete guarantee of authenticity, exactitude and, even less, accuracy of the words that they recount. Composed from many various chains of oral transmission, they offer only an approximate representation of historical facts. A few hundred original statements[59] have been multiplied into the thousands over the course of less than a century. Narratology shows us that the oldest of these stories date back to the end of the 7th and the early 8th century[60], which coincides with the end of the civil war. It is at that time that the various strands of political, theological and jurisprudential thought have emerged, that now form the basis of all traditions among Muslims.
These collections of traditions are therefore born from a multitude of events and circumstances that Muslims experienced after the death of the Prophet, and represent the ideological, political and sociological conceptions of their time. The misguided and the opponents of Islâm profit from these collections with uncertain content and lend credence to them in order to draw their own lessons that suit their own purposes; and in turn they deform and distort Islâm. Some stories from these collections of traditions do roughly interpret the Qurân, some are contrary to the literal and allegorical sense of its verses, and they assign the Prophet with points of view, behaviours, and actions that are totally opposite to his character and the Message of Islâm.
Obscurantists, criminals and islamophobes attempt to imbue the ignorants with the belief that Islâm is synonymous with hatred and violence. This idea helps their incendiary and petty speeches and promotes enmity and discord, encouraging in this way to a war of civilisations. If we are not careful, chaos will be the result.
Certainly God Commands by equality and excellence and the rapport with relatives, and He Forbids the turpitude and the unrecognisable and the oppression; He Urges you; so perhaps you may remember! 90[61]; And be not like those who dispute and separate after receiving the Explicit-ones; for them there is a great torment 105[62]; (…) And be not of those who associate 31 Of those who have divided their creance (religion) and were propagandists, each coalition happy with what is with them 32[63]. However, many entrenched in multiple factions, mutually excommunicating one another, forsaking the original and universal message of Islâm, interpreting the Qurân without drinking at its source because they have lost and forgotten the heart of the Qurân in favour of uncertain, debated and questionable traditions. And among people who dispute about God without knowledge or guidance or enlightening writing (book) 8[64]
Dismaying is the example of the one who listens but hears nothing, who learns but understands nothing, who thinks he knows but knows nothing, who tinkers but does not apply himself at all; in the end he is of no use apart from trying to be smart… a whole lifetime without science nor conscience in the humdrum routine of everyday life. That can make people laugh, but it is sad anyway.
I am Muslim, I testify that there is no god except God, Unique, without associate. And I testify that Muhammad is His Servant and Envoy, namely that the Creance, the Religion, with God is the Pacification, the Islâm, the submission to God in peace. I do not testify that Abû Bakr, ΣOmar, ΣUthmân or ΣAlî[65] are messengers of God. They are just Muslims close to the Prophet, who were both right and wrong, and who cannot be blameless in essence. Only God Is Perfect and Absolute. I do not claim any theological or jurisprudential school in particular; this does not prevent me from strongly feeling my duty to defend the Muslim community – despite its diversity – of which I am a part. And I refuse – with all my strength – that it be split yet. I position myself against the excommunicators and the secessionists, whoever they may be. God does not like either aggression or aggressors. He Is The Witness and The Judge, and no one can claim to possess the paradise or hell, except Him.
For believers, God Himself Is the Truth, The Sovereign, Supreme Truth; The Ineffable Truth. Other than Him, no one possesses the Absolute Truth, everyone has their own truth; in brief, there are as many points of view with regard to the truth as opinions. However, ‘Truth means nothing unless it is expressed uniformly, while objections and heresy are always able to address the detail’ (Blondel). The truth is knowledge recognised as right, consistent with its purpose and which therefore has a universal, absolute and ultimate value; the standard, principle of rectitude, wisdom, universally considered as an ideal in the sphere of thoughts and/or action.
Some politico-theological and case law doctrines – inherited from the history of Muslims – subsequent to the Prophet, are contrary to the very spirit of original Islâm. And yet unfortunately, many proclaim them today as immutable and eternal truths. These are no longer, as a priority, the original Message of Islâm and its universal values that are taught – obscured or forgotten – but the ritualistic doctrines of another age, with prospects from the future to the past! It is not Islâm that needs reforming; it is traditionalism, which must be amended and desecrated. One teaches memoranda of traditions, instead of the Religion of “Those who remember God, standing and sitting and on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the skies and the earth (…)”[66].
Current religious institutions perpetuate, encourage and spread ideological traditionalism, ritualism and conformism; they do not prioritize upholding the original Message of Islâm which is stated and conveyed in the Qurân during the lifetime of and by the Prophet, over the traditionalism introduced after him and set up as a religion since then. It is time for Muslims to make this distinction, to search out the original meaning of Islâm, and to reform themselves accordingly.
The original Islâm, embodied during the lifetime of the Prophet, expressed and explained in the Qurân, must be the principal reference for any Muslim worthy of this name. This Islâm is synonymous with Science, Knowledge, Tolerance and Progress. As for traditionalism, it is synonymous with a past frozen in history: faded away and non-replicable. History advances and does not move backwards no matter what we do, this is the Law of God. Furthermore, traditionalist ideologism is an agent, by excess and by default, of intellectual stagnation, superstition, fetishism, dogmatism, uniformity, ignorantism and obscurantism; certainly evils to be avoided.
Traditionalists dwell on the ḥadîth, what the prophet reportedly said, in order to legitimise their ideologies and their interpretations of the Qurân, without really taking account of the original message of Islâm, and even less the historical and sociological data or the circumstantial facts of time, place, cause and purpose. However, God says: And he does not speak out from inclination 3 It is not but revelation that is Revealed 4[67]. We note from these verses that what can be certified as the words of the Prophet is only what was revealed to him by God, namely the Qurân. In fact, the injunction of God Say! is repeated three hundred and thirty-two times in the Qurân[68]. And this divine injunction, repeated many times, is inherent in the continuous transmission of the well-understood message. What the Prophet certainly said is what God Himself had ordered him to say by revelation in the Qurân. Such [are] the Signs (Verses) of God, We Relate them to you by the true, so by which statement (ḥadîthin) after God and His Signs (Verses) do they assure (believe)? 6[69]
The sunnah[70], the tradition, actions and deeds of the Prophet, is also, and more authentically, found in the Qurân. The Qurân recounts the Prophet as a man of great creativity and morality, and it recounts what he must say or do; how he must communicate the Qurân, how he must act when different situations arise etc. The Qurân even specifies how he must behave and interact with his family, his adopted son, believers and men in general, including how to marry or divorce. The word sunnah, lifestyle, is cited sixteen times in the Qurân[71] in reference to God or those who came before the Prophet, but not once in relation to Muhammad himself.
Pseudo-religious fanatics take inspiration from traditionalism, stemming from the history of Muslims and not Islâm itself. We therefore must take action to inform and teach the original Islâm (from the lifetime of the Prophet) and set it apart from the traditionalist islam (after the death of the Prophet), plotted, built and established by political-theological, sociological and historical circumstances, mixed with the original Message of Islâm (Knowledge, Faith, Charity, Tolerance and Pacification).
Original Islâm is the Religion of God; it is stated in the Qurân. Ideological traditionalism, for its part, is consequent to the history of Muslims after the Prophet; it cannot therefore be considered part of the canon of Religion. In the seriously alarming circumstances of our modern society, I allow myself to think that it is everyone’s duty to encourage, support and promote the scientific works and books dealing with original Islâm. The latter, by means of those ones, is indeed the most effective tool to permanently and efficiently counter, neutralize and annihilate ideological ultra-traditionalism, a way leading to so much harm and suffering. The presumptuous are loud; but when you are dealing scientifically, expertly and masterly with a subject, they are then disconcerted, with no reply other than expressing their insufficiency.
* * *
Let us therefore refer to the Book of God, for all Muslims. There is an inescapable verse that we must absolutely take into account for a better approach to the Qurân: It Is He Who has Sent down to you the writing (book), in it are Adjudged (decisive) signs (verses), they are the mother of the writing (book), and others are plurivocal; but for those in whose hearts is deviation, they follow the part thereof that was equivocated, seeking subversion and searching for its primexplanation; and no one Knows its primexplanation except God and those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: ‘We have assured (believed) in it, all is From Our Master’; and none do remember except those ranked first in quintessences 7[72]
This verse, far from being insignificant, is clear and precise, especially for the scholar who study the entire corpus of the Qurân. Attention is drawn to two levels of analysis, both equally important: the phrastic analysis and the transphrastic analysis of the Qurân. The first concerns the very essence of the Book, unchanging and timeless; it is at the foundation of the original Message of Islâm. The second relates to its form of application, which can involve several meanings that may be circumstantial of time, place, cause and purpose.
Sometimes, our certainties need to be reviewed, re-evaluated, or even reformed, in order to find back the true meaning of a Cause. Example: the Qurân mentions the law of retaliation relating to the elders, organized at the time in primitive societies; that being said, it gives precedence to the narrative (the faculty of narrating and acting accordingly) of “those ranked first in quintessences”, those who apprehend the gist. The level of knowledge acquired in our modern societies no longer allows us to act through instinct and vindictiveness, but rather through civilizing prevention and justice. “And for you a life in the narrative, o those ranked first in quintessences; perhaps you will protect yourselves!”[73]. Until you empty your heart of rage and hatred, you can’t fill it with the Love of God and spread it in His Creation.
Another example: outside of traditionalism, is there anything in the Qurân which obliges Muslims to sacrifice animals, whatever the circumstance? Obviously not. The word “offering,” hadyu in Arabic, can take on a number of meanings, depending on the time, the place, the cause and the aim. This term is used in the Qurân for the pilgrimage, whereas the word  “throat-slitting” (dhabḥ) refers to the sacrifice of Abraham. The distinction is linguistically significant and far from being fortuitous. The difference between cutting the throat of an animal and offering a gift may be considerable. Consequently, can the annual massacre of millions of animals at Eid/Tabaski be considered to be compatible, reconcilable and coherent with original Islâm? A fundamental question worthy of meditation by anyone who fears God and believes in Him.
As a reminder, tradition recounts that on his pilgrimage, the Prophet performed a sacrifice – namely in quite specific circumstances – for his whole community. His gesture amounts to all the animal sacrifices performed since that time, and until the end of time. So, on the day of Eid, any Muslim may absolve themself through an offering – a hadyu – regardless of its nature, without necessarily resorting to a throat-slitting: “Neither their fleshes, nor their bloods, ever reaches God. But what reaches Him is the premunition from you. Thus He Subdued it to you, that you may magnify God for Guiding you. And delight the excellent”[74]
“And there is no animal (animate) on earth or bird (volatile) that flies with its wings, but nations, like you”[75]. The true Muslim cannot hold in contempt, mistreat, degrade or weaken any animal, or kill it without good reason, much less for pleasure. Even to feed himself, he cannot trivially kill an animal; he must consider this act in the Name of God as a sacrificial operation, that is, an extraordinary act performed in fear of God, Creator of Breath of all life.
God has Sent down the most-excellent statement, a plurivocal writing (book), split into two, which makes shiver the skin of those who fear Their Master, then their skins and their hearts soften to the Rememoration of God; this is the Guidance of God, He Guides therewith whomever He Wills; and whomever God Leaves Astray, there will be for him no guide 23[76]
Islâm preaches measure and moderation in all things and for each thing, far from extremism and extremes. Clothingly speaking, the Qurân presents a summary: “(…) and the clothing of premunition, that is best, that is from the Signs of God, perhaps they will remember!”[77]. Covering one’s head, growing a beard, the qamis/daffah, the boubou or the djellaba, the veil, the niqab, the burqa or the chador; all of this is a result of traditionalism and has nothing to do with original Islâm as a religion. On the contrary, today, all of these manifestations are harming the image of Islâm and Muslims, mainly in non-Muslim countries; they are synonymous with obscurantism, sectarianism, provocation and aggression. For the learned Muslim – responsible and aware of real Islâm – it is unbearable to see it become distorted and reduced to these ostentations. The Islâm of light – at the origin of the emergence of modern science – is disguised by the ideological traditionalism as a ritualistic, backward and retrograde religion. Muslims must be awakened to original Islâm, the Islâm of science and progress; they must also protect themselves and preserve their religion from all harmful prejudice.
The adoration of God is not concretized either in ostentatious getups or in an incantatory ritualism; even less in illusory mimics, words without knowledge and derisory sacrifices. It is crystallized into the right decision followed by the good deed. Adoring and serving God means loving and serving His Creation; it means thinking and acting well, being helpful and not futile. Being a Muslim, believer and practitioner, means being learned, pacified and pacifying, ensured, ensuring and reassuring, kind, benevolent and beneficent; it means living and dying peacefully.
And thus We Formed you an average nation so that you may be witnesses to the people, and that the envoy may be a witness to you (…)[78]; And strive for God with the striving due to Him, He has Chosen you, and He has not laid upon you any embarrassment in the creance (religion); the inclination of your father Abraham, he named you ‘pacified (Muslims)’ before; and in this, so that the envoy may be a witness to you and you be witnesses to the people (…)[79]; (…) God Wants ease for you and does not want difficulty for you (…)[80].
The Muslim is the one who has a commitment with God, to believe in Him, to worship Him through Islâm, which raises one’s soul, in all purity, to act with kindness, to accomplish the charitable, to recommend the suitable and condemn the despicable, to call men to God, to humanism, to reform and to equity. This gives him a benefit in this world and the best from God. In truth, the best provision is piety. The one who gets up with God, who drinks and who eats with God, who works and who rests with God, who sleeps and dreams with God, who thinks, who speaks and acts with God, who is poor and who is rich with God, who is healthy and who is sick with God, who is young and who is old with God, who lives and who dies, with God on his lips and in the heart; that one possesses this world and the hereafter. He gets up, drinks and eats, works and rests, sleeps and dreams, thinks, speaks and acts, lives and dies in peace. In peace with himself, with men, beings and things; accordingly, in peace with God, The Supreme-Good. Those are the righteous.
Muslims must return to the original message of Islâm, the one of yesterday, today and tomorrow. They must rebuild themselves into a community of the middle way, the community of “‘Iqra’, of “Link and Read” through the Knowledge of God.
First of all they must rise out from the torpor and fear that overwhelm them, and vigorously denounce everything and everybody that, through hate and violence, deform their religion. It is incumbent upon them to awaken and rehabilitate the original Islâm in the eyes of the world; Islâm of the Enlightenment, of science and progress, that of peace, of freedom of conscience and of tolerance. They must diligently practice benevolence and charity: faith in God is intrinsically linked to the good and beautiful deed, which work simultaneously, one with the other. Know how to love your fellow men, be kind to your neighbours, feed the hungry, take in orphans; that is what is good, what is right and is not vain.
You were the best nation, Brought out for people: you order what is appropriate and you restrain from the unrecognizable and you assure (believe) by God. And if the familiars of the writing (book) had assured (believed), assuredly it would have been better for them; among them are the assurers[81] (believers), but most of them are perverts 110[82]; And the epoch! 1 Certainly the human is assuredly in loss 2 Except those who have assured (believed) and done righteous deeds, and recommended each other to Truth, and recommended each other to patience 3[83]
* * *
Man, with all his knowledge, still feels the need to feed his soul; his spiritual quest demands answers. And yet the wave of sects of Judeo-Christian and Far East inspiration, derived from Buddhism or Hinduism, has ebbed. There have been attempts to spiritualise materialism and vice versa, but the result was not a big success. This will also be the case for the doctrinal sectarianism of errant Muslims. However, Islâm, with its original Message, will make man rediscover his humanity and his raison d’être; such is its universal vocation. (…) and whoever fears God, He Forms a way out for him 2 And He Provides for him from where he does not expect, and whoever relies on God, then He Is His Calculator; certainly God Forwards His Command; God has already Set a measure for all things 3[84]

 

The Sun rises in the West (2018) SCDOFG

 

 

[1] 570-632.

[2] In Arabic, ignorantism, al-jâhiliyyah (الجاهلية), is synonymous with obscurantism, the doctrine, the attitude of those delighting in ignorance.

[3] Located in the surroundings of Mecca.

[4] Chapter 42, verse 52.

[5] Chapter 29, verse 48.

[6] Chapter 93, verses 4-11.

[7] Chapter 33, verse 40.

[8] Chapter 5, verse 3.

[9] Chapter 3, verse 19.

[10] Chapter 112, verses 1-4.

[11] Chapter 5, verse 3.

[12] Chapter 24, verse 35.

[13] Chapter 39, verse 41.

[14] Chapter 30, verse 30.

[15] Chapter 96, verses 1-5.

[16] Chapter 2, verse 31.

[17] Chapter 16, verse 27.

[18] Chapter 30, verse 56.

[19] Chapter 7, verse 176.

[20] Chapter 59, verse 21.

[21] Chapter 10, verse 24.

[22] Chapter 2, verse 219.

[23] Chapter 3, verse 191.

[24] Chapter 10, verse 5.

[25] Chapter 30, verse 22.

[26] Chapter 29, verse 43.

[27] Chapter 35, verse 28.

[28] Chapter 29, verse 49.

[29] Chapter 58, verse 11.

[30] Chapter 30, verse 56.

[31] Chapter 22, verse 54.

[32] "raises the soul to Islâm"gives, in the original French: "hisse l'âme à l’Islâm".

[33] Chapter 17, verse 89.

[34] Chapter 59, verse 21.

[35] Chapter 26, verses 23-24.

[36] Chapter 37, verses 4-5.

[37] Chapter 16, verses 49-50.

[38] Chapter 15, verse 9.

[39] Chapter 56, verses 77-80.

[40] Chapter 85, verses 21-22.

[41] Chapter 30, verse 41.

[42] Chapter 4, verses 26-28.

[43] Chapter 61, verse 9.

[44] Al-dajjâl (الدجال): the antichrist.

[45] It is useful to recall here that the term jihâd (جهاد) means "striving": to think and/or act with effort; this original meaning can circumstantially extend to the armed struggle. The latter (armed struggle) is rather referred to as qitâl (قتال) in Arabic.

[46] Chapter 5, verse 77.

[47] Chapter 2, verse 30.

[48] Bible, Genesis, 3:6.

[49] Chapter 20, verse 44.

[50] Chapter 7, verse 12 and chapter 38, verse 76.

[51] Calendar which begins on 1st muḥarram (15 or 16 July 622), starting from the emigration (al-hijrah) of the Prophet, from Mecca to Medina.

[52] Chapter 97, verse 3.

[53] Chapter 2, verse 85.

[54] First discord and civil war between Muslims.

[55] The word salaf means "previous," and designates by extension the Muslim scholars of the first centuries.

[56] The word ḥadîth means "utterance," and designates by extension what the Prophet reportedly said. The numerous ḥadîths take up several volumes.

[57] The word sunnah, or sîrah, means "lifestyle," "conduct," and designates by extension the tradition: what is reported of the conduct, actions and deeds of the Prophet.

[58] Al-muḥaddithûn are the experts in the words attributed to the Prophet.

[59] Approximately 700 statements at most.

[60] After 680.

[61] Chapter 16, verse 90.

[62] Chapter 3, verse 105.

[63] Chapter 30, verses 31-32.

[64] Chapter 22, verse 8.

[65] The first four caliphs who succeeded each other after the death of the Prophet.

[66] Chapter 3, verse 191.

[67] Chapter 53, verses 3-4.

[68] In the majority of cases, this injonction is addressed to the Prophet.

[69] Chapter 45, verse 6.

[70] When a ḥadîth, a sunnah or sîrah of the Prophet are proven scientifically, they must be considered circumstantial.

[71] Fourteen times in the singular and twice as a plural.

[72] Chapter 3, verse 7.

[73] Chapter 2, verse 179.

[74] Chapter 22, verse 37.

[75] Chapter 6, verse 38.

[76] Chapter 39, verse 23.

[77] Chapter 7, verse 26.

[78] Chapter 2, verse 143.

[79] Chapter 22, verse 78.

[80] Chapter 2, verse 185.

[81] In Arabic, the words "assurance", "faith" and "belief" (îmân, إيمان) have the same root (A-M-N, أ م ن): assurance, safety, security. In the Quranic language, faith is acquired through knowledge, by making sure and assuring; it is far more than a vague and relative belief. God Is Evident, rationally, one can only testify this; and this testimony must be made with full knowledge of the facts, with full science and consciousness. The believer, which I translate as the assurer, makes sure and secures himself, by educating himself about the Fact of God; this is how he becomes secure and securing, assured and assuring (mu’min, مؤمن).

[82] Chapter 3, verse 110.

[83] Chapter 103, verses 1-3.

[84] Chapter 65, verses 2-3.

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